History and Theory
Paradigms of Educational Technology:
In ET, paradigms have traditionally defined how members of the field think, see, feel, and act with reference to the instructional problems they encounter. Paradigm shifts: science advances by revolutionary changes, not by the steadfast accumulation of experiences and observations. In this century, the following four major paradigm shifts have emerged in ET.
1. Physical Science or Media Approach to Educational Technology
* Applies physical sciences and engineering technology (equipment) in the presentation of materials or programs.
* Preoccupied with effects of devices and procedures vs. individual learners or selection/design of instructional content.
* Views non-verbal (graphics, film, television, etc.) as more effective than verbal (lectures, books).
* Flourished in the first half of this century, began to fade in 1960s.
2. Audiovisual Communications: A Synthesis of Communications and Systems Concepts
* Communications approach altered the traditional theoretical framework of the field.
* Focus on process of communicating information from a source (teacher) to a receiver (student).
* Media and devices viewed as components of an instructional design. All components related to specific instructional problems and objectives.
* Fragile connection with this theory and practice began to unwind with impact of behavioral sciences on ET during the 1960s and 1970s.
3. Behavioral Sciences Approach to Educational Technology
* Behavioral science: study of human behavior focused on the fields of psychology, anthropology, and sociology.
* Impact relatively new to ET. Origins can be traced to late 1800s.
* Behavioral sciences as applied to problems of learning and instruction is basis of modern ET concept.
* Includes specialized areas of learning, group processes, language and linguistics, communications, cybernetics, perception, and psychometrics.
3.1. Problems of Integration of behavioral-sciences-based ET
* Prior to 1960's behavioral-sciences-based technology was validated exclusively in experimental classrooms.
* Hilgard (1964) defined an integrative strategy which includes research conducted in a special laboratory classroom, then tryout in a traditional classroom, followed by advocacy and adoption through the creation of textbooks and teacher training.
3.2. Two Theoretical Orientations
* Berelson (1963): for ET to be considered part of the behavioral sciences it must deal with human behavior and it must study its subject matter in a scientific manner.
* This approach has lead to two different instructional approaches in ET: the behaviorist concept and the cognitive concept.
3.3. The Behaviorist Concept of Educational Technology
* John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner argued that science must investigate public, observable events.
* Experimental psychologists focused on observable behavior from 1920s through 1950s.
* In 1950s impact accelerated in field of ET. CAI influenced by this trend.
* Behaviorist concept of ET focuses on the lower cognitive processes with motives being controlled through conditioning.
* Skinner: "Teaching is simply the arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement."
4. The Cognitive Concept of Educational Technology
* Attempts to understand the internal processes of behavior and emphasizes knowing rather than responding.
* Views the learner not as passive but as active, constructive, and playful.
* Learner becomes an active participant in the process of acquiring and using knowledge.
* By the 1980s, the cognitive model began to replace the behaviorist model in ET.
* The organization, processing, and storage of information by the learner constitute vital elements in instructional development.
* Developed the concept of learning strategies: intellectual skills that learners use to control their internal processes of attending, perceiving, encoding and retrieval.
* ET should focus on activating the appropriate learning strategies during the instructional process.
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Chapter 5 - The Rise and Decline of The Visual Instruction Movement
I. Adult Education Movement: Forerunner of Visual Instruction
A. Early Forms in the United States
1. New England Town Meeting
2. the Lyceum
a. Massachusetts - 1826
I. founded by Joseph Holbrook
Ii. lantern slide popular medium of instruction
3. the Chautauqua
a. founded by John H. Vincent & Louis Miller - 1874
I. lantern slide used extensively
4. the community public libraries
5. extension education
6. commercial or proprietary schools
7. Young Man’s and Women’s Christian Association
8. Other lecturers
a. John L. Stoddard - 1880’s
I. still pictures for travel lectures
b. Elias Burton Holmes
I. as a child spellbound by Stoddard
ii. successful and famous by 1909
iii. published his travel lectures in fifteen volumes
iv. his own film-processing laboratory and lantern slide factory
v. significant contributions
- popularization of illustrated lectures
- early source of film for the classroom
II. Impact of the Early School Museum Movement
- concerted effort to cooperate with the public schools
- increasing fulfillment of the instructional function was acknowledged - 1880
- opening of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City
- museums declared to be social instruments for the educational progress for the masses
A. Early Museum Instructional Programs
1. Davenport (Iowa) Academy of Sciences - 1878
a. arranged a cooperative instructional program with the Davenport Public Schools
b. 1904 half of the curator’s salary paid by the school board
B. Museums of Arts and Sciences
1. instructional programs in cooperation with public schools, colleges and universities
a. Fogg Art Museum of Cambridge, Ma
I. worked with Harvard in the early 1900’s
b. The Field Museum of Natural History of Chicago
I. worked with the Chicago Public Schools - 1911
C. American Museum of Natural History - 1869
1. outstanding example of museum instruction
a. 1880 - Albert S. Bickmore - illustrated lecture for teachers
b. 1904 - nature-study collections distributed to schools
D. Philadelphia Commercial Museum
1. Edward Brooks, school superintendent
a. idea following the 1893 Chicago Colombian Exposition
b. secure exhibits from the exposition by Dr. Wm. P. Wilson of Chicago
c. museum began in 1900
d. circular that announced lectures and classes of 1924/25 references visual instruction
e. 1905 - Pa. state legislature appropriated $25,000 for its works
f. 1925/26 school teachers appointed to museum staff
E. St. Louis Commercial Museum
1. 1905 first administrative unit for instructional media in a public school system
2. Carl G. Rathman, assistant superintendent aware of instructional potential of exhibits
a. 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition
b. September 13, 1904 school board authorized Rathman to purchase instructional materials
c. April 11, 1905 museum opened in an old building
d. 1927 museum was wrecked by tornado
e. Rathman began a nationwide tour, appealing for aid
F. Reading Pa. Public Museum and Art Gallery
1. 1908 second museum designed solely to provide instructional materials to the schools
2. Levi W. Mengel , school teacher visited in 1904 the St. Louis Louisiana Purchase Exposition
3. 1905 Reading public schools received 2000 items from exhibits
4. 1907 Reading Board of Education approved organization of materials and approved 3 fl of a building
5. 1908 the museum opened
G. Cleveland Educational Museum
1. the third museum established in 1909
III. The First Visual Instruction Department of Bureaus
A. 1886 education department for the state of New York
1. legislative appropriation to encourage visual instruction
2. appropriations totaled as much as $50,000
B. 1904 New York state organized the first visual instruction department
1. built the largest collection of lantern slides
C. 1910 University of Texas - bureau of visual instruction
D. by 1914 other visual instruction departments established
1. University of Indiana
2. Iowa State College
3. State University of Iowa
4. University of Kansas
F. by 1920, six more visual instruction departments had been formed
IV. Early Visual Instruction in City School Systems
A. three distinct phases
1. the school museum movement
2. the organization of slide libraries
3. the establishment of educational film libraries
B. Most intriguing history
1. Chicago slide library - 1895
- organized by a group of principals
- independent of the board
- each donated $25 to a slide fund
- eventually nearly half of the Chicago Public Schools were members
- 1917 the complete collection of 8,000 slides were given to the Chicago Board of Education
V. Early National Survey of Visual Instruction
A. conducted by F. Dean McClusky by 1923
1. Cost of Visual Instruction
2. Types and Amount of Visual Materials and Equipment
3. Distribution Methods
4. Non departmentalized Visual Instruction
- a visual department with a visual education committee composed of teachers and administrators
- similar to first, committee members were representative of a group of teachers and principals
- confined to individual school, responsibility rested with principal/teacher of school
VI. Theoretical Rationale For the Visual Instruction Movement
A. National Education Association (NEA) 1886
B. William G. Bagley - 1906
C. John Adams - 1910
D. Joseph J. Weber - 1928
E. Charles F. Hoban - 1937
F. Edgar Dale - Cone of Experience
1. influential after World War Ii
VII. A Decade of Growth
A. 1918 - 1928
1. formal credit courses
2. professional organizations
3. professional journals
4. systematic research studies
5. administrative units in public schools, colleges, universities and state departments of education
6. movement on sound basis when US Bureau of Education donated hundreds of surplus war film
VIII. Professionalization of Visual Instruction: Development of National Organizations
A. First National Visual Instruction Organizations
1. 1919, five organizations established, two short lived, one lost national status, one served for 12 years, one survives
B. The National Academy of Visual Instruction
C. The Visual Instruction Association of America
D. NEA Department of Visual Instruction
IX. Judd Committee: The First Formal Assessment of the Visual Instruction Movement
A. Will H. Hays, President - Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA)
1. appeared before the general assembly of the 1922 NEA summer convention in Boston
2. pledged support of the resources of the motion picture industry
A. Subcommittees Formed - Charles H. Judd - University of Chicago
1. The Judd Committee Summary Report
2. The Judd Committee and Commercialism
X. National Visual Instruction Organizations Merge
A. Early Barriers to Merger
B. The Merger Movement
C. First Officers
XI. Teacher Education in Visual Instruction
A. First Teacher Education courses
B. Important Surveys
1. The Dorris Survey
2. The McClusky National Survey of 1923
3. The National Academy of Visual Instruction Survey
4 The Balcom Survey
5 Later Surveys
C. Visual Instruction Courses
1. Classification of Visual Instruction Courses
2. Organization of Visual Instruction Courses
3. Scope and Content of Visual Instruction Courses
D. State Department of Education
E. University Extension Divisions
F. Four-year Institutions
G. Early Teacher Education Conferences
XII. Early Visual Instruction Journals
A. Reel and Slide and Moving Picture Age
B. The Screen
C. Educational Film Magazine
D. Visual Education
E. Visual Review
F. The Educational Screen
G. Visual Instruction News
H. Film and Radio Guide
XIII. Early Visual Instruction Textbooks and Guides
XIV. Visual Education during World War II
A. informed individuals worked to influence industry and the armed services
B. these organizations needed highly trained workers quickly
XV. Decline of the Visual Instruction Movement
A. leaders in the field became uneasy with the labels attached to new media
B. dissatisfaction with the traditional conceptual rationale
C. communications orientation began to influence a new conceptual framework
XVI. Concluding Assessment
A. by McClusky
XVII. Relationship of the Visual Instruction Movement to Educational Technology
A. a small specialized movement separated from educational technology
B. references to the visual instruction movement rarely appear in histories of educational practices
C. discontinuity of the vi movement with the discipline of educational technology can best be illustrated by developments in programmed instruction
1. Montessori developed devices during the first decade of the century
2. Sidney Pressey and others a decade later began their experiments with programmed instruction
Behaviorism can be traced back to ancient Greeks
Basis for American behaviorism came from early 19th century Frenchman Auguste Comte, and Russian physiologists Ivan Schenov (1857-1905), Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), and Vladimir Bekhterev (1857-1927)
The psychology of behaviorism is attributed to John B. Watson (1878-1958) in his article from Psychological Review entitled “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It.”
Clark L. Hull (1884-1952) developed a mathematical learning theory based on the idea that learning involves stimulus response conditioning
B.F. Skinner was the leading behaviorist of the 1960s
By the 1970s, behaviorism was on the way out, as cognitive psychology or information-processing psychology became the dominant way of thinking
The 1960s showed a revival of the behavioral objectives movement, with Skinner describing the teacher as one “who arranges the contingencies of reinforcement” and the learner is “conditioned to perform specified, quantifiable, terminal behaviors”.
Franklin Bobbit (1876-1952), proposed that you could determine curriculum by analyzing what people do and then breaking that down into hundreds of specific aims.
W.W. Charter (1875-1956) suggested that the philosopher determine the objectives, and the analyst provide the technique for meeting those objectives.
Ralph Tyler stated educational objectives in behavioral terms, and then designed tests to determine whether these objectives had been met Taxonomic approaches to objectives began in 1948, with the first taxonomy appearing in 1956 (Bloom) after a need was expressed for standardized terminology regarding human behavioral characteristics.
Mastery learning came about in the late 1970’s from the use of instructional objectives as a basis for evaluation.(Bloom)
The Military and Industrial Approach to behavioral objectives
Late 1960s and 1970s, behavioral objectives movement brought on a revival of scientific management to education-the accountability movement
1960’s Skinner demonstrated a machine to teach spelling and arithmetic.
Programmed Instruction Movement
1962-1963 American schools adopted programmed instruction, which was based on Skinners operative conditioning concepts of stimulus, response, feedback and reinforcement.
Machine-program dichotomy-which was more important?
Decline of programmed instruction by the late 1960’s, but it did make some lasting contributions to educational technology
Individualized approaches to Instruction
F.S. Keller’s personalized system of instruction (PSI) was published in 1968, and did not contain teaching machines or programmed materials. Five features included:
Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI)
Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN)
Individually Guided Instruction (IGE)
Decline of Individualized Instruction
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
First used in education and training in the 1950’s
Skinner behaviorism still impacts educational technology, but cognitive psychology was dominant over behavioral approaches by the late 1970s.
Leit 642 , Summer 1997
Saettler’s purpose in this chapter is to: (1) provide a brief history of instructional design, (2) survey the development of theories and models of instruction, (3) discuss origins of the systems design approach to instruction, and (4) update the present status of systems design theory.
History of Instructional Design
The author begins by briefly discussing select early educators associated with systematized models, theories, and methods of instruction. These include Elder Sophists, Comenius, Montessori, Thorndike, and Dewey. Their contribution was discussed in depth in earlier chapters.
The turn of the century saw seperation of the academic disciplines of educational technology and psychology. Psychologists retreated into the laboratory and educational technologists turned their focus to hardware and media. World War II seemingly forced these two distinct disciplines to work together to develop effective methods of mass instruction as well as principles and procedures for instructional design. This fertile marriage yielded the rich, initial models of instructional design born in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Skinner’s behavioristic model spawned programmed instruction while Bruner, Ausubel, and others developed models based on cognitive structure. At this time, many saw the need expressed by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development "‘...to delineate scientifically based instructional theories from the more intuitively based and somewhat speculative ‘theorizing’ which had been so characteristic of education previously (p.344).’"
The major hallmarks of today’s instructional design process reflect the emphasis on curriculum reform produced in the 1960’s. Notable names which date to this time are: Gagne, Briggs, Glaser, Mager, Carroll, Cronback, and Scriven. Significant components also date to the 1960’s and include programmed instruction, criterion-referenced testing, formative evaluation, developmental testing, Individually Prescribed Instruction, and mastery learning.
Instructional Design Theories
The present major theories of the instructional design field evolved between 1950 and 1980. These are very briefly summarized by the author and include:
1. Bruner’s Toward a Theory of Instruction
2. Gagne’s Hierarchical Task Analysis
3. Gagne-Briggs’s Theory of Instruction
4. Case’s Neo-Piagetian Theory of Instruction
5. Component Display Theory
6. Elaboration Theory of Instruction
7. Structural Learning Theory
8. The Algo-Heuristic Theory of Instruction
9. A Cognitive Theory of Inquiry Teaching
Instructional Systems Design
Instructional systems design grew out of the 1950-60’s as educational technology development paralleled and modeled the systems approach emerging within the military and industrial worlds. The traditional approach to education was viewed as piecemeal, being offered in disconnected fragments. Instructional systems design, where "all components of the instructional process are fitted together into a system" was seen as providing a solution to this problem (p.350). Entire instructional systems were designed using flow charts or lists of steps to be followed. The systems approach provided a ".clear distinction of educational technology in contrast to traditional instruction approaches. Instructional designers utilizing this systems approach included Kemp, Banathy, Corrigan, and Gagne.
While varying in the number of steps or stages, theoretical basis, and degrees of use, systems models share certain characteristics described here by Briggs:
¨ A system is an integrated plan of operation of all sub-systems, designed to solve a problem or meet a need.
¨ Planning requires an analysis and logical ordering of components, with careful coordination of the total effort.
¨ Planning requires an orderly but flexible sequence.
¨ The design procedures are research based as far as is possible.
¨ Design models require empirical testing, actual tryout, and revision.
¨ The final version requires comparison with alternate instruction, or a determination of its value.
Summarized here are the fourteen typical stages and tasks found in most systems design models used for development of an entire curriculum as set forth by Briggs and Wager.
1. Analysis of needs, goals, priorities
2. Analysis of resources and constraints
3. Selection of delivery system
4. Statement of curriculum scope and sequence
5. Design of the organization of courses
6. Design of organization of course units
7. Analysis of objectives
8. Organization of lessons
9. Designing the lessons
10. Assessment of learner performance
11. Development of materials
12. Empirical tryout and revision as needed
13. Summative evaluation of final form
14. Plan teacher preparation and diffusion
Status of Instructional Systems Design Theory
Saettler’s conclusion challenges the prevailing models of instructional systems design which "reflect a linear, ends-means view associated with behavioristic concepts (p.353)" He states that although educational technologists use the concept of a general systems theory to justify their approach to program design, this bears little or no relation to the generally accepted general systems theory as developed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy. Derived from biological systems, this theory focuses on wholeness or the holistic state. It recognizes that a living organism is not a collection of separate elements, but rather is an open system that remains stable in a dynamic equilibrium while the matter and energy that enter it keep changing.
Saettler believes that this description fits the man-made instructional system that must dynamically interact with its environment. This includes the components of "teachers, learners, instructional resources, procedures, administrators, boards, parents, local community, government, and many other agencies (p.354)." The instructional system is composed of many interrelated parts working together to accomplish common goals. The author believes that instructional systems design models have erred by focusing on designing, producing, and validating particular products, courses, or curriculum. Rather it should concentrate on analyzing the classroom environment to gain a clearer understanding of why and how schools function. He sites Bela Banathy’s work as representing this belief, which is at variance with the typical linear instructional designs.
With little progress being made in recent years, Saettler states that the future of instructional design theory is uncertain. "Unfortunately, there is still no sound, comprehensive theory of instruction , and there seems to be a lack of communication between instructional designers and classroom teachers (p.354)." His challenge for instructional designers is to adapt theories into teacher-friendly practical strategies for specific instructional situations. He feels that to be effective, the emphasis must shift towards incorporating practicing teachers in experiments with alternate theories of instruction in actual school settings.
The Information Revolution which created today's Information Society began in the late 50's with the creation of the first high level programming languages and the appearance of integrated circuits. These events made computer technology, which had been its beginnings in the US at the end of the 19th century, available to a larger segment of society.
Twenty years later telecommunications and computing begin to converge into a single technology. Digitization of mass media is speeded up and the society begins to envision the possibilities for the future. The optimists state the outlook for the future, sometimes with a fervor bordering on the religious. A sampling of their predictions:
Accumulation of wealth and power will depend upon information, knowledge and intelligence. Those who have more information will tend to be materially better off.
Machines will take over the boring jobs freeing people for creative personal and societal endeavors and there will be a global sense of awe and humility for the collective human spirit and its wisdom.
.A set of global ethics will evolve and provide us with the ability to live in symbolic tranquility with our planet.
Of course, these views are not endorsed by everyone with an eye on the future. A sampling of the pessimists:
There is no evidence that our capacity to absorb information has changed, even though there is more information available.
The pace of change is deceptive and there has been no technological speed-up. It took 50 years for television and VCR technology to be endorsed on the large scale. Computer technology is taking even longer to reach the same level of usage.
There is no guarantee that computers and communication will automatically produce a better world and no assurance that the information society will be highly productive, democratic and socially stable. The result could be involuntary idleness.
The impact of information technology on Educational Technology is bleak. In the 50s, the outlook was overwhelmingly optimistic, focusing first on educational uses of television and later on programmed instruction and CAI. However, the inclusion of technology into the educational setting was often a top-down decision motivated by a desire for more efficient management of education rather than more individualized education. The decision makers were often ill-informed about equipment and short-sighted about on-going maintenance/replacement costs, as well as serious training of the faculty who were expected to implement the technology. There was not a firm experimental foundation to steer the development of instructional technology. Significant, also, was the prevailing view that hardware was the key and little or no attention was given to the process of "instruction using technology".
One critic states that schools, in the 90s, are repeating the errors made in the 60s, with educational television. Budgets are being stretched to the limit to purchase hardware and software, leaving little money for maintenance and upgrading of the media. Schools, once again, are not budgeting money for large-scale retraining of teachers. As a result, the technology is not yet living up to expectations.
I.Difference between Educational Technology & New Information technologies
A.Educational Technology - Process of instructional design & learning
B.New Information Technologies - Electronic Media that may or may not be used for instructional purposes
C.Clark & Sugrue - Media are delivery vehicles for instruction & not variables that directly influence learning.
II.Background & Meaning of New Information Technologies
A.4 Generations of Computers
1.1st Generation (1951-1958) - Vacuum Tubes
2.2nd Generation (1958-1964) - Transistor
3.3rd Generation (1964-1974) -Integrated circuit on silicon chip
4.4th Generation (1974- ) - Microprocessor
5.5th Generation (In Experimental Stage) -Artificial Intelligence
B.Definitions of Information Technologies
1.Gerstein – Collective means to assemble and electronically store, transmit, process, and retrieve words, numbers, images, and sounds, as well as the electronic means to control machines of all kinds.
2.Webster and Robbins – Encompasses word processors, office equipment, electronic mail, cable television, videotext, robotics, television games, computer networks, and satellite communications.
3.1983 Report by the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress – Includes communications systems such as direct broadcast satellite, two-way interactive cable, low-power broadcasting, computers, and video technology.
C.Information Technology as Extensions of Media
1.Term for information technology was instructional media
D.Convergence of Computing and Telecommunications
1.Reason for conversion between communications media is digital electronics
2.New media forms do not replace the old - Print & Electronics; TV & Video
3.Definitions of media:
a.Enumerated lists of devices or aids
b.Gagne – physical means by which an instructional message is communicated
c.Other definitions: Romiszowski, Moeller, Thayer, Salamon, Gross, Gordon
E.Microcomputers and Education
1.Computers in Education – 1960 with CAI
2.Stanford CAI project, IBM 1500 CAI system
4.Late 1970s - First microcomputer in education
5.Early 1980s – Heavy investment in microcomputers
6.1985-1 million; 1988-3 million
7.Average user – less than 30 minutes; 1/3 of students 15 min. or less
8.Drill & Practice – Elementary School
9.Programming – High School & Computer Literacy
10.Robyler-better design and development methods are an essential component in improving the impact of CAI
F.Computer Instructional Applications
1.Drill and practice
2.Tutorial CAI – Difficult to develop; few good available; costly
3.Simulations – Further research needed on the effectiveness
4.Instructional CAI Games – Criticized for trivial skill development and excessive use of computer capabilities
5.Hybrid CAI application – Combine tutorial, simulation, and drills.
6.Programming Languages – BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PASCAL, ADA, or LOGO
7.Microcomputer has produced a shift from conventional instruction to problem solving.
a.Math – manipulations to understanding
b.Language Arts–grammar&spelling to composition & editing
8.CMI – Computer Managed Instruction
a.Individualized programs, maintaining grades, generating tests or worksheets, performing administrative functions
9.Word-processing, spreadsheets, super calculators, databases
G.Changing Concepts of Computer Literacy
1.Mid 1970s – computer capabilities, applications, algorithms, social issues
2.Bright-computer literacy will be important in the 1990s and beyond.
3.Sloan – computer literacy is not essential
III.Artificial Intelligence and Computer Assisted Instruction
A.Mid 1950s – Logic Theorists by Newell and Simon at Carnegie-Mellon Univ.
B.Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy (LISP) at MIT
C.Ed Feigenbaum – Stanford
D.SHRDLU – Terry Winograd at MIT
E.PERCEPTRON (1960) – Frank Rosenblatt – recognized letters
F.ICAI – David Marr (MIT) – perception of objects and scenes
1.ICAI – miniworlds which combine games, simulations, or programming with machine-based tutors capable of engaging the learner in a dialogue
2.Basic issue is how different learners learn and what approaches or designs are most appropriate or effective for different learners.
3.Skeptism about claims of AI revolutionizing the schools in the near future.
IV.New Information Technologies:Implications for Educational Technology
A.Simpler, more practical video recorders, cassettes, and discs, and low-cost television
equipment, cellular communication
B.Interactive Video - Educational community has no great need
1.$35,000 to $100,000 per hour
C.Teleconferencing - Increased considerably in recent years
D.Electronic Blackboard - Blackboard to TV
F.Integration of Technology - Digital integrated networks
G.Rapid Obsolescence of Information Technologies
V.Task Force Report: Transforming American Education: Reducing the Risk to the Nation
A.Computer capable of revolutionizing education
B.Critique of Task Force Report
1.The information technology industry should perform research and development to transform education through applications of technology, to evaluate the effectiveness of the new methods and materials, and to disseminate successful practices to the field.
VI.A Historical Analysis of Technological Innovations in Education
A.Difficult to effect the adoption and use of new technologies and instructional methods in the
B.1806-1853 – slates, tables, wallcharts, and chalkboards
C.Mid-nineteenth century – printed text
1.5% of weekly time on computer
VII.Analysis of the Failure of Technological Innovations in Education
A.Insufficient funds, lack of adequate time, poor teacher preparation, persistent resistance of
teachers to change
B.Students find inquiry approaches problematic and prefer rote learning because it is simpler and less certain
C.Cuban & Cohen – No technological change until radical changes within the school organization and structure.
D.The majority of the instructional staff should be non-teaching members