**Ary Checklist for Evaluating Research Reports**
*Ary, D.; Jacobs, L. C.; and Razavieh, A.
(1996). Introduction to Research in Education.*
__Title__
Does the title make clear the population of interest and
the major variables?
Have vague, ambiguous, and emotion-laden terms been
avoided?
__Statement of the Problem__
Have the variables of interest been identified?
Has the theoretical foundation for the study been
developed?
Is the problem clearly stated?
__Related Literature__
Is the related literature relevant and sufficient?
Are the connections between the present study and the
previous research and theory made clear?
__Hypotheses__
Are the hypotheses explicit?
Do the hypotheses follow logically from the statement of
the problem?
__Subjects__
Is the population of interest defined?
Is the method for selecting the sample explicit?
Does the sampling allow for generalization to the
population of interest?
__Procedures__
Are the procedures described well enough to allow
replication of the study?
Do the procedures include appropriate operational
definitions of the independent variables?
Do the procedures provide sufficient control for internal
validity?
Do the procedures provide sufficient control for external
validity?
__Instruments__
Are the instruments adequately described?
Is information on the validity and reliability of the
instruments provided?
Are the instruments appropriate operational definitions of
the dependent variables?
__Analysis of the Data__
Are the descriptive statistics used appropriate for
summaries of the data?
Are the inferential statistics used appropriate for
testing the hypotheses?
Have the statistics been interpreted appropriately?
Are the statistics appropriate for the level of
measurement of the data?
__Results__
Are the results of all hypotheses tests presented?
Are the statistics interpreted correctly?
Are the results clearly presented?
Are the connections between the results and theory and
related literature shown?
__Conclusions__
Are the conclusions clearly presented?
Do the conclusions follow logically from the results of
the study?
Has the author avoided reaching conclusions that are not
directly supported by the outcomes?
__Implications and Applications__
Does the author present implications of the study results?
Are the implications presented based on the results of the
study and not on what the author hoped or expected to be true?
Are appropriate applications discussed?
Do the applications follow logically from the results of
the study?
__Summary__
Is the summary clear, concise, and sufficiently complete?
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